Territorial user rights for fisheries are being promoted to enhance the sustainability of small-scale fisheries. Using Chile as a case study, we designed a market-based program aimed at improving fishers’ livelihoods while incentivizing the establishment and enforcement of no-take areas within areas managed with territorial user right regimes. Building on explicit enabling conditions (i.e., high levels of governance, participation, and empowerment), we used a place-based, human-centered approach to design a program that will have the necessary support and buy-in from local fishers to result in landscape-scale biodiversity benefits. Transactional infrastructure must be complex enough to capture the biodiversity benefits being created, but simple enough so that the program can be scaled up and is attractive to potential financiers. Biodiversity benefits created must be commoditized, and desired behavioral changes must be verified within a transactional context. Demand must be generated for fisher-created biodiversity benefits in order to attract financing and to scale the market model. Important design decisions around these 3 components—supply, transactional infrastructure, and demand—must be made based on local social-ecological conditions. Our market model, which is being piloted in Chile, is a flexible foundation on which to base scalable opportunities to operationalize a scheme that incentivizes local, verifiable biodiversity benefits via conservation behaviors by fishers that could likely result in significant marine conservation gains and novel cross-sector alliances.
We provide an assessment of marine conservation in Peru. We do so by synthesizing the relevant literature and conducting in-country interviews across all relevant sectors. This report is not intended to be an exhaustive review of marine conservation in Peru. Rather, we highlight activities occurring across a diversity of sectors and geographies. Peru’s marine environment is unique and globally important from many perspectives. It supports the anchoveta fishery—the world’s largest fishery. The Humboldt Large Marine ecosystem is one of the world’s most productive ecosystems—both its complexity and biodiversity are staggering. And Peru’s marine environment supports jobs and livelihoods. A recent study estimates that Peru’s fisheries sector alone provides over 200,000 jobs, the majority of which are connected to the artisanal fishing sector. Compared to the Amazon and other terrestrial ecosystems, biodiversity conservation and sustainability in the marine environment is relatively new in Peru. It has received less focus, resources, and attention. This, however, is beginning to change. New marine protected areas are being declared. A new generation of Peruvian scientists, practitioners, and entrepreneurs are turning the efforts toward the sea. And new streams of investment for marine protection and sustainable fisheries are starting to come online. The main goal of this report is to capture some of these developments, as well as provide insights on the challenges and opportunities that lay ahead with respect to improving marine biodiversity protection, management, and sustainability in Peru.